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Jargon

A la Niçoise

Various dishes typical of the cuisine of the region around Nice, in which the most common ingredients are garlic, olives, anchovies, tomatoes and French beans

Aaba ghannouj

A mezze or vegetable side dish eaten throughout the Middle East

Aagel

A small Jewish roll-with-a-hole, firm, moist and slightly "chewy"

Aalsamic vinegar

A vinegar originating from Italy made from a reduction of cooked white Trebbiano grape juice, and used as a condiment

Aamboo shoots

Ivory white in colour from the base of a bamboo tree cut into 7 cm slices. Usually found dried or canned in water

Abaisse

A term used in French cookery for a sheet of rolled-out pastry

Abalone

A common name for any of a group of small to very large edible sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the Haliotidae family

Abondance cheese

an Alpine cheese from Savoie made from unpasteurized cow's milk

Achar

An Indian term for a pickle

Achiote paste

A thick, deep-red seasoning also known as recado colorado, from the Yucatán region of Mexico. It is best rubbed on chicken, pork, fish, or seafood with a deep-red colour and warm, mild flavour

Acra

A savoury fritter made by mixing a spiced puree of vegetables or fish with fritter batter (also known as akra)

Agraz

A sorbet made from almonds, verjuice and sugar

Aïoli

A sauce of garlic and olive oil best known in its mayonnaise form with egg yolks

Ajwan seed

A pungent, bitter fruit-pod from the Bishops Weed plant with a strong thyme taste used in Asian dishes

Akadashi

A mega red miso soup consisting of mushroom and miso

Akra

A savoury fritter made by mixing a spiced puree of vegetables or fish with fritter batter (also known as acra)

Al dente

An Italian expression (meaning literally "to the tooth") indicating the correct degree of cooking for pasta

Allspice

A spice, also known as Jamaican pepper that is ground from the unripe berries of a tree in the Caribbean, Honduras and Mexico

Almond

The fruit of an almond tree

Almond milk

Almond milk is lower in fat than vitamin D milk and can be used as a substitute in almost all cooking

Amourette

French for the delicately flavoured spinal bone marrow of beef, mutton or veal

Amuse Bouche

A French term which means a little bit of food which is served before the meal to stimulate the appetite

Anchovy

A small sea fish very abundant in the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. They taste fishy and extremely salty

Angus cattle

Known as Aberdeen Angus in most parts of the world, are a breed of cattle commonly used in beef production

Anise

The seeds of an annual plant related to cumin and fennel with a mild, liquorice flavour used in Middle Eastern cooking (also called aniseed)

Aniseed

The seeds of an annual plant related to cumin and fennel with a mild, liquorice flavour used in Middle Eastern cooking (also called anise)

Annatto seed

A lentil shaped seed brick-red in colour and used to provide a yellow/orange colour to Latin American or Spanish cooking. It can be used in the place of saffron

Aperitif

An alcoholic drink taken before a meal to stimulate the appetite

Arborio rice

A short-grain, pearl-like Italian white rice which is high in starch and forms the foundation of risotto

Artichoke

A perennial vegetable related to the thistle, whose edible immature flower head is formed of a fleshy base and heart surrounded by scaly leaves

Asparagus

A perennial plant with an underground stem that produces edible shoot, with a nascent bud of different colours which are regarded as a delicacy

Aubergine

A rounded or elongated vegetable with a firm shiny skin covering pale, creamy white or greenish flesh, familiar as a purple vegetable

Avocado

A pear-shaped or round fruit with dark green or purplish brown skin colour a hard round pit surrounded with pale-green buttery flesh

Azuki bean

A tiny, dull-red bean very squat in shape and sweetish in flavour. After soy, it is the most-used bean in Japanese cookery

Basil

A herb which leaves have a strong, pungent taste that compliments fish and meat dishes, particularly those containing tomatoes. Basil is widely used in Mediterranean and Arabic Cuisines

Battonage

A French term for lees stirring or stirring the wine in a barrel with a stick so as to disallows the fine lees deposited on the bottom

Bay leaves

The aromatic leaf from the bay laurel tree, it is an essential component of the classic bouquet garni: parsley, thyme and a bay leaf

Bean sprouts

Bean sprouts are a common ingredient, especially in Eastern Asian cuisine, made from sprouting beans. The typical bean sprout is made from the greenish-capped mung beans

Béarnaise sauce

A classic hot creamy French sauce made from egg yolks and reduced vinegar, whisked together over a low heat and mixed with butter

Beef

The meat of all large domestic cattle, including heifer, cow, ox, bullock and bull

Beef bourguignon

A well-known, traditional French stew prepared with beef braised in red wine (originally Burgundy wine) and beef broth, flavoured with garlic, onions, carrots, a bouquet garni and garnished with mushrooms

Beurre blanc

A classic French sauce made with reduced vinegar and shallots to which butter is added

Beurre noisette

A warm butter sauce that can be used to accompany many foods, such as winter vegetables, pasta, fish, omelettes, and chicken. The sauce is also frequently used in French pastry production

Bincho-tan

A Japanese Style traditional high quality charcoal, also known as white charcoal or bincho-zumi

Black garlic

A type of caramelised garlic first used as a food ingredient in Asian cuisine. It is made by heating whole bulbs of garlic over the course of several weeks, a process that results in black cloves

Black pudding

A savoury sausage consisting largely of seasoned pig's blood and fat contained in a length of intestine, which forms the skin

Blanc de blancs

White wine made solely from white grapes

Blanc de cuisson

The French term for a liquor used for cooking white offal and certain vegetables

Blanc de noirs

White wine made from black grapes, the juice being run off before the skin pigments can tint it

Bockwurst

A generic German name for all sausages that are very finely ground like frankfurters, wieners and knackwurst

Bok choy

A type of Chinese cabbage which can refer to two groups of Chinese leaf vegetables often used in Chinese cuisine: the Pekinensis Group and the Chinensis Group

Bolognaise

The French term for several dishes inspired by Italian cookery, especially Bologna, served with a thick sauce based on beef and vegetables, tomato and associated with pasta

Bone marrow

A soft fatty substance in the cavities of long bones. Usually used in osso bucco, or a filling and flavouring of dishes. May also be bought in jelly form. Amourette is the French name for spinal marrow

Bordelaise

The name given to a wide range of dishes (eggs, fish, shellfish, kidneys and steak) which use such ingredients as bone marrow, shallots and wine

Borsch

Also known as borscht, a beetroot soup eaten hot or cold

Bouguet garni

A selection of aromatic plants used to flavour a sauce or stock, usually tied together in a small bundle to prevent them from dispersing in the liquid and are removed before serving

Bouillabaisse

A dish comprising of fish boiled with herbs, which is traditionally associated with the Provence region

Bouquet

The aroma produced by the evaporation of the volatile products evident in wine. It is one of the main elements, together with fruitiness and vinosity, that may enable the origin of a wine and for the experienced, also its area and vintage to be identified

Brioche

A soft loaf or roll made from a yeast dough enriched with butter and eggs

Bruschetta

A slice of bread, grilled on both sides and eaten with olive oil and a garnish

Buffalo mozzarella

Made from the milk of the domestic Italian water buffalo. It is a product traditionally produced in Campania, especially in the provinces of Caserta and Salerno

Buffet

A buffet in a restaurant is a large table on which dishes are arranged in a decorative manner, which is a show of choice edibles. Normally a fixed price for eat as much as you can

Chantilly

A fresh cream beaten to the consistency of a mousse, sweetened and flavoured with vanilla ot other flavours used as an accompaniment to desserts

Charcuterie

Products based on pork meat or offal. Preperation include cured meats, fresh and smoked sausages, pates, black puddings and hams which is salted and smoked

Chardonnay

One of the finest white grape varieties originally from Burgundy

Chateaubriand

A slice of very tender fillet steak grilled or fried and often served with a sauce (traditionaly Bernaise)

Chayote

A green pear-shaped tropical fruit that resembles cucumber in flavour

Cheek

Either side of the lower jaw of an animal including the muscles

Chenin blanc

A grape variety originaly from Anjou. It has fairly compact bunches of grapes with crisp grapes of average size, golden yellow, with dense flesh and sweet juice

Chianti

An Italian DOCG red wine from Tuscany, produces in the hills between Florence and Siena

Chilli

Related to the pepper this is a hot fruit of the capsicum family, generally referred to as a spice but depending on the type, also a vegetable

Chilli powder

A hot spice prepared from ground dried red chillies and varying in intensity

Chipotle

A smoked hot chili pepper used especially in Mexican cooking

Cilantro

Another term for coriander

Cinnamon

An aromatic spice made from the peeled, dried, and rolled bark of a Southeast Asian tree

Cockles

A bivalve mollusc which is found near the sea-bed. They may be eaten raw, but are generally cooked, like mussels

Compote

A preparation of fresh or dried fruit, cooked either whole or in pieces in a sugar syrup

Confit

confit of goose and duck are usually prepared from the legs of the bird which is salted and seasoned with herbs, and slowly cooked submerged in its own rendered fat, then preserved by allowing it to cool and storing it in the fat

Cotija cheese

Cotija is a versatile Mexican cheese that has a strong salty taste

Coulis

A liquid puree of cooked seasonal vegetables or shellfish. Fruit coulis are made of raw or cooked fruit

Courgette

Also known as Zucchini, a variety of marrow usually eaten when young and immature. There are many types varying in shape, colour and size

Crawfish

A freshwater crustacean resembling a small lobster

Crème anglaise

A light pouring custard used as a dessert cream or sauce

Crème brulee

A dessert consisting of a rich custard of egg yolks, sugar and cream, often flavoured, which is set by cooking in the oven. The chilled custard is covered with brown sugar and caramelized with a blowtorch

Crêpe suzette

A thin dessert pancake with a brandy and citrus sauce, usually set aflame when served

Croutons

A small piece of bread which is toasted, lightly browned in butter, fried in oil or simply dried in the oven

Cured meats

Curing refers to various preservation and flavouring processes, especially of meat or fish, by the addition of a combination of salt, sugar and either nitrate or nitrite. Many curing processes also involve smoking

Cuttlefish

A mollusc related to squid and lives on weedy coastal sea beds. They are cooked like squid, but the flesh is quite tough and has to be beaten vigorously

Dashi

The Japanese name for stock. Stocks in Japanese cooking are very light, made by soaking dried konbu seaweed and other ingredients in water

Dauphine potatoes

Potatoes reduced to a puree, added to choux paste, shaped into balls and fried in very hot fat

Demi-glace

A rich brown sauce made by boiling and skimming espagnole sauce and adding white stock

Dessert

Usually the last course of a meal

Digestive

The French digestive, a liqueur or spirit that may be taken after a meal, served plain with ice

Dijon mustard

A medium-hot mustard, typically prepared with white wine and originally made in Dijon, France

Dill

An aromatic annual herb of the parsley family, with fine blue-green leaves and yellow flowers. The leaves and seeds of dill are used for flavouring and for medicinal purposes

Dim Sum

of a collection of steamed and deep-fried snacks, usually served from mid-morning right through the afternoon

Duchess potatoes

Potatoes pureed with butter and egg yolk, piped into decorative shapes and baked

Dumpling

A ball of dough, originally savoury and served as an accompaniment to meat or as a dessert

Edamame

Edamame are little green soybeans still in the shell. They're rich in lean protein and calcium in addition to healthy fats

Eel

A snakelike fish with a smooth slippery skin

Eggs benedict

Served on an English muffin, a poached egg laid on a slice of ham sautéed in butter coated with hollandaise sauce and garnished with truffle

Endive

A plant with leaves that may be eaten raw in salads or cooked as a vegetable. Most varieties have bitter leaves. Commonly used is the curly endive

Entrée

The entrée is usually the main course of a meal, but in full French menu it is the third course

Espelette pepper

Also known as piment d?Espelette, this chili is a common spice of the Basque region of France, and while not a scorcher, it has a delicious subtle heat, slightly smoky and slightly citrusy

Fennel

Fennel is a plant that can be used as a vegetable and whose seeds are also used as a spice. The leaves, stalk and bulb are aromatic and flavourful

Fillet

The undercut of the sirloin of beef, also used for the same cut in pork, veal and lamb

Fillet Mignon

Piece of a small section of beef, positioned within the thoracic cage, along the first dorsal vertebrae

Filo Pastry

Also known as phyllo, is a paper-thin pastry made from flour and water

Fish Sauce

A Thai and Vietnamese sauce used as a flavouring or condiment, prepared from fermented anchovies and salt

Five Spice Salt

A seasoning used especially in Chinese cooking, consisting of ground cinnamon, cloves, star anise, fennel seed, and Szechuan peppercorns

Flan

An open tart filled with fruit, a cream or a savoury mixture. It may be served hot as an entrée or as a dessert

Focaccia

A large, round, flat Italian bread, sprinkled before baking with olive oil, salt, and often herbs

Foie Gras

Goose or duck liver that is grossly enlarged by methodically fattening the bird considered a rare delicacy but the way in which it is served has changed according to culinary fashion

Fondant

A thick paste made of sugar and water and often flavoured or coloured, used in the making of candy and the icing and decoration of cakes

Fondue

A dish in which small pieces of food are dipped into a hot sauce or a hot cooking medium such as oil or broth

Fortified Wine

Wine to which a certain quantity of spirit is added in the course of production

Four Spice Salt

A mixture of spices, usually consisting of ground pepper, grated nutmeg, powdered cloves and ground ginger or cinnamon

Fritter

A preparation consisting of a piece of cooked or raw food coated in butter and fried in deep fat or oil

Frog legs

Frog legs are one of the better-known delicacies of French and Chinese cuisine. The legs of edible frogs are also consumed in other parts of the world, including Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, the Alentejo region of Portugal, Spain, Albania, Slovenia, the northwest Greece and the Southern regions of the United States

Ganache

A flavoured cream made with chocolate and fresh cream, sometimes with butter added, used to decorate desserts

Garam Masala

A spice mixture used in Indian cookery, typically cardamon, cinnamon, cloves, cumin and black pepper

Garnish

A single item or combination of items accompanying a dish

Gastronomy

The art of good eating

Gazpacho

A Spanish soup made with bread and vegetables, including cucumber, tomato, onion and red pepper seasoned with olive oil, garlic and vinegar and served cold

Giblets

The edible inner parts of poultry, including the gizzard, heart, liver and kidney's

Gnocchi

Small dumplings made of flour, semolin and potato pastry ` normally poached then cooked au gratin in the oven

Gochujang

A staple in Korean cooking - bright red paste found in everything from bibimbap to dukbokki (stir-fried glutinous rice cakes)

Goujon

Small strips of fish, typically sole, coated and fried.

Goulash

A Hungarian beef soup

Gramolate

Also known as gramolata. A type of sorbet made from a granita mixture - served between main courses

Grappa

A marc brandy made in Italy from the residue of grapes left after pressing

Gratin

The golden crust that forms on the surface of a dish when it is browned in the oven

Gremolata

A flavouring mixture used in Italian cooking consisting of chopped parsley, grated lemon rind and finely chopped garlic

Grits

First produced by Native Americans centuries ago. Grits are small broken grains of corn boiled with water or milk and served as a breakfast food or side dish

Guacamole

A dip originating in Mexico consisting of avocado, tomato, onion, lemon juice and spices

Gulf Shrimp

The flesh of Gulf shrimp have a subtle, sweet and briny taste

Hamachi

The young of the Japanese amberjack or yellowtail, which is fished and bred in Japan as a food fish and normally used in sushi

Haricot verts

A very small and slender green bean

Harissa

A paste from North Africa made from chillies, oil, garlic and coriander, pounded with cumin or coriander or sometimes with dried mint or verbena leaves

Heirloom tomatoes

An heirloom tomato is an open-pollinated (non-hybrid) heirloom cultivar of tomato. Heirloom tomatoes have become increasingly popular in cooking

Himalayan sea salt block

The crystal lattice of our Himalayan salt blocks has a high specific energy, so they hold any temperature you bring it to for a while (both hot and cold)

Hollandaise sauce

A hot emulsified sauce based on egg yolks and clarified butter. It is the foundation of several other sauces

Horseradish

European plant of the cabbage family, with long dock-like leaves, grown for its pungent edible root, scraped or grated as a condiment and often made into a sauce

Hummus

An Arabic and Greek dish made from cooked chick peas crushed with sesame paste, garlic and lemon

Infusion

The process of steeping an aromatic substance in a boiling liquid until the liquid has absorbed the flavour

Irish stew

A stew of mutton and potatoes

Jabugo ham

A type of cured ham produced in Spain and Portugal

Jalapeno

A hot green or orange-red pepper, the fruit of a variety of Capsicum annuum, used especially in Mexican cooking

Jambalaya

A speciality of New Orleans, inspired by Spanish paella made of spiced rice, chick and ham. Sausage, peppers, tomatoes, prawns or oysters can be added

John Dory

An oval deep-sided fish found along rocky coasts. Its firm white flesh comes of the bone easily and can be used in several dishes

Julienne

Vegetables that are cut into thin slices, cooked in a butter in a covered pan until soft and then used for various garnishes

Juniper berries

The dark berries of the Juniper tree used in cooking and making of wines and spirits because of their pungent flavour

Jus

The French word roughly the same as juice. Made by diluting the pan juices with water, clear stock then boiling it until all the goodness has been absorbed in the pan

Kale

Member of the cabbage family - dark green with large coarse leaves with flavour that resembles strong cabbage

Kebab

Small pieces of meat threaded on to skewers and grilled or roasted. Can be made with peppers, tomatoes, onion and other vegetables

Kidneys

A type of red offal

Knackwurst

A fresh German sausage similar to frankfurter but shorter and thicker. The name comes from German knacken which is the cracking sound it makes when bitten into

Knuckle

Also the shin, the part of the leg of an animal carcass lying below the thigh or the shoulder

Kobe beef

A grade of beef from cattle raised in Kobe, Japan, which is extremely tender and full-flavoured as a result of the cattle being massaged with sake and fed a special diet including large quantities of beer - Also called Wagyu

Kohlrabi

A cabbage of a variety with an edible turnip-like swollen stem

Kuzu root starch

Also called kudzu or kuzuko, is a traditional starch widely used in Japan for its superior thickening properties. Kuzu root starch is natural and unprocessed unlike corn and potato starch. Kudzu is far superior in jelling strength, taste, and texture

Lamb

The male or female young of the sheep

Langouste

A crustacean also known as spiny lobster, thorny lobster and crawfish. It differs from true lobster in having no claws

Langoustine

The French name for the Dublin Bay prawn or Norway lobster. It has a yellowish-pink shell which does not change colour when cooked and are sweeter in taste

Lard

A cooking fat obtained by melting down pork fat. It is a fine white fat which is not used much anymore because of its high animal-fat content

Lasagne

Italian pasta cut into wide flat sheets. Green lasagne is flavoured with spinach whereas pink lasagne is made from tomato

Leek

A vegetable believed to have originated from a Near Eastern variety of garlic. Normally eaten cooked, either hot or cold, though they can be finely shredded in a salad

Lemongrass

Found in South-East Asia it has a strong lemon-like flavour and is popular in Thai, Indonesian, Malaysian and Vietnamese cooking

Liver

Offal (organ meat) from the carcasses of animals, poultry and game

Lobster

A marine crustacean related to crayfish, crawfish and crab found in cold seas. It is the largest and most sought-after shellfish

Macaroni

Tubes of pasta originated from Naples cooked in boiling water and may be served with grated cheese, tomato sauce, butter, cream or au gratin

Macaroon

A small, round biscuit crunchy outside and soft inside made with ground almonds, sugar and egg whites

Maki

A Japanese dish consisting of sushi and raw vegetables wrapped in seaweed

Mange-tout

Also known as snow peas or sugar pea. They are brilliant green in colour and taste best when used raw in salads or cooked only briefly

Marinade

A flavoured liquid, cooked or uncooked in which savoury ingredients like meat, offal, game, fish or vegetables are steeped for varying lengths of time. The principle purpose is to flavour food

Mascarpone

Italian speciality made by mixing cream with lemon juice or citric acid. It has a smooth creamy texture and taste served on a cheese board or to make Italian desserts

Meat

The flesh of animals and birds used as food since ancient times

Medallion

An item of food cut into a round or oval shape

Meringue

A very light sweet mixture made from stiffly whisked egg whites and sugar that when baked becomes crisp and firm

Mi-cuit

A rough translation of the French phrase mi-cuit is ?half-cooked?

Mignardises

A bite-sized dessert, and its name is used interchangeably with the French term petit four

Mignonette

Coarsely ground pepper particularly from the more flavoursome white peppercorns

Mint

A very fragrant aromatic plant used in infusions, to flavour liqueurs, sweets and syrups and as a culinary herb

Mirin

A Japanese spirit-based liquid made from rice, usually referred to a rice wine

Miso

A Japanese condiment consisting of a red or white paste or fermented soya, made from cooked soya beans mixed with rice, barley or wheat grains and salt

Molasses

The thick brown uncrystallised residue obtained from cane or beer sugar during refining

Mollusc

A soft-bodied animal, usually with a shell

Morel

A very tasty but rare mushroom which is found in the spring. Morels may be preserved in oil or by drying

Morney

A béchamel sauce enriched with egg yolks and flavoured with grated Gruyère cheese

Mushrooms chanterelle

A mushroom having a bright yellow-to-orange funnel-shaped cap, a favourite edible species in France with a slight apricot-like aroma

Mushrooms hen of the woods

A delicious edible mushroom. In Asia, it has been used medicinally for centuries. Called ?maitake? in Japan, a name that means ?dancing mushroom? ? because people dance for joy when they find it

Mushrooms oyster

The most commonly cultivated edible mushrooms in the world

Mushrooms trumpet

A fragrant, dark brown or black, edible mushroom related to the chanterelle found especially in temperate forests of the northern hemisphere, and has a hollow, trumpet or funnel-shaped fruiting body

Mutton

The meat from sheep over a year old. The criteria of quality are firm, compact, dark-red flesh and hard fat, pearly white in colour and plentiful around the kidneys

Nasi Goreng

An Indonesian rice dish with finely chopped onion, garlic and chilli fried in oil then added to diced cooked pork, chicken and peeled prawns

Noodles

Long pasta and is believed to originate from the German nudeln a general name for pasta

Nori

Japanese name for edible seafood used in Japanese cooking for centuries

Nouvelle Cuisine

A movement in cookery started by two food critics encouraging a simpler and more natural preparation of food

Octopus

A fairly large mollusc measuring up to 80cm with a head and 8 equal-sized tentacles each having two rows of suckers. Can be prepared like lobster

Offal

The edible internal parts and some extremities of an animal removed before the carcass is cut up

Okra

A tropical plant widely cultivated as a vegetable. It is used before it is ripe, when it is green and pulpy and the seeds are not completely formed

Olive

The small oval fruit of the olive tree, widely cultivated in Mediterranean regions. The fruit ripens from green to black

Onion

A plant grown in many countries, whose bulb is probably the most common vegetable used in cooking. The white fleshy leaves are covered with several layers of skin - red, brown, yellow or white

Oregano

Also known as wild marjoram, this is a herb with a pungent flavour

Osso Bucco

An Italian dish meaning "bone with a hole" consisting of a stew of pieces of veal shin braised in white wine with onion and tomato

Ostrich

A large African bird whose flesh and eggs have long been eaten. Its flesh which is lean and tender tastes like a mixture between beef and game

Ostrich eggs

The ostrich is the largest living species of bird and lays the largest eggs of any living bird. The eggs are equivalent to 2 dozen chicken eggs

Oxtail

The culinary name for the tail of cattle used to make many delicious dishes, notably oxtail soup

Oyster

Saltwater molluscs with rough irregular shells. Several kinds are eaten (especially raw) as a delicacy and may be farmed for food or pearls

Oyster crab

A tiny, soft-shell crab that lives in oysters and is considered to be a delicacy

Paella

A traditional Spanish rice dish garnished with vegetables, chicken and shellfish. Paella may be a rustic dish cooked in open air eaten straight from the paellera

Palate cleanser

Generally a neutral flavoured element in food that enables to clear the palate from one flavour to another

Palm sugar

Palm sugar is a natural sweetener made by boiling the sap from sugar or palymyra palm flowers until it is reduced to sugar crystals

Panacotta

A cold Italian dessert made with double cream, often served with caramel syrup

Pancetta

An Italian speciality, this spiced, cured belly of pork is similar to high quality streaky bacon. It may be eaten raw in thin slices

Pandanus leaves

Also known as screw pine or palm pine a tropical plant. In Chinese it is known as 'fragrant plant' because of its unique, sweet aroma.

Parfait

An iced dessert made with double cream, gives it smoothness, prevents it from melting too quickly and enables it to be cut into slices

Parma ham

A strongly flavoured Italian cured ham, eaten uncooked and thinly sliced

Parmesan

A hard, dry variety of Italian cheese made from skim milk, usually grated and sprinkled over pasta dishes and soups

Peperoni

A spicy Italian sausage or salami of pork and beef which may be eaten raw and is a popular pizza topping

Pepper cubeb

Tailed pepper is a plant cultivated for its fruit and essential oil. It is mostly grown in Java and Sumatra. The fruits are gathered before they are ripe, and carefully dried

Pepper tellicherry

Whole black peppercorns are left on the vine longer so they develop a deep, rich flavour. Considered the finest pepper in the world, these extra-large berries come from the Malabar coast of India. The berries for black peppercorns are picked from the vine just before they ripen and turn red.

Peppers piquillo

A variety of chilli, capsicum annuum, a sweet taste with no heat - Its name is derived from the Spanish for "little beak"

Peppers shishito

The Japanese cousin to Spain's famed Padrón peppers. Delicately sweet and usually mild, they are an easy snack to throw on the grill

Pesto

A cold Italian sauce with large quantities of basil are ground with garlic, pine nuts, parmesan cheese and olive oil

Petit Fours

A small fancy biscuit, cake or item of confectionary - also known as mignardises

Pistou

A paste or sauce from Provençe made of basil, garlic, olive oil, and sometimes Parmesan cheese and tomato paste

Poultry

Generic term for farmyard birds, notably chicken, turkey, duck, goose and guinea fowl

Prawns

A marine crustacean which resembles a large shrimp

Prosciutto

Raw cured Italian ham, eaten especially in thin slices as an hors d'oeuvre

Purée

A creamy preparation obtained by pressing and sieving cooked food or using a blender or food processor

Quail

A small migratory game bird found in Europe. It is plump and full of flavour and can be roasted, grilled, sautéed, braised or stuffed. Quail eggs are also used in cooking

Quinoa

An annual herb of the goosefoot family that is native to the Andean highlands and is cultivated for its starchy seeds which are used as food and ground into flour

Rabotte

Also known as rabote - an apple or pear enclosed in pastry, cooked in the oven and served warm or cold

Raclette

A cheese fondue from Switzerland prepared by holding a half-round of the local cheese close to the fire, as it melts the softened part is scraped off and eaten

Ragout

A stew made from meat, poultry, game, fish or vegetables cut into pieces and cooked

Ramps

Also called wild leek, wild garlic, and spring onion, ramp is a wild onion with a garlic-like smell and strong onion flavour

Ratatouille

A vegetable stew typical of Provençal cookery made from onions, courgettes, aubergines, sweet peppers and tomatoes in olive oil and herbs

Ravioli

An Italian dish consisting of small square envelopes of pasta dough enclosing meat or vegetable stuffing, cooked in boiling water and served wit tomato sauce and grated cheese

Razor clams

Also known as razor-shell a sand-burrowing mollusc with an elongated tubular shell. It may be eaten raw or cooked

Reggiano

An Italian cheese, short for formaggio parmigiano-reggiano - high quality Parmesan cheese that is usually aged for several years before use

Relish

A highly flavoured condiment which resembles chutney, usually with a hot or piquant flavour

Rémoulade

A cold sauce made by adding mustard, gherkins, capers and chopped herbs to mayonnaise, sometimes finished with little anchovy essence and chopped hard-boiled egg

Rhubarb

A hardy perennial plant whose fleshy stalks are used to make cooked desserts such as pies, jams or compotes often flavoured with lemon zest or ginger

Ricotta

An Italian curd cheese made from the whey produced as a by-product in the making of various cow's and eve's milk cheeses. It is soft, rindless with a granular crumbly texture and mild flavour

Risotto

An Italian rich dish which is gently sautéed in butter often with chopped onion then a stock is added, a ladleful at a time resulting in a rice that is al dente

Rocket

A Mediterranean plant with a pungent taste and smell whose young leaves are eaten as a salad. Also grow wild in Asia

Roe

The reproductive glands of male or female fish, containing the sperm and eggs respectively. Traditionally preserved and served as a luxury both for their texture and flavour. The larger eggs pop in your mouth

Roulade

Any of various savoury or sweet preparations which are stuffed or filled and then rolled. The term is used for both savoury and sweet dishes

Rump steak

A cut of beef taken from between the buttock and the sirloin. Less tender than fillet but with better flavour

Saffron

A spice consisting of the dried stigmas of the saffron crocus which is an orange-yellow powder or trands or threads with a pungent smell and bitter flavour. Saffron is very expensive and has a privileged place in cookery

Sake

Also known as saki, a Japanese alcoholic drink brewed from rice. A clear to pale straw in colour and styles range from dry, light and crisp to fuller and lightly sweet

Salami

A charcuterie product of Italian origin. A sausage usually made from finely minced pork interspiced with pieces of fat. Beef, goose and veal may also be used - often served thinly as a cold appetizer

Salsa

Spanish for sauce, either hot or cold. The term is usually applied in Spain and Mexico to spicy sauces often hot with chillies and particularly to uncooked sauces and dips

Sangria

The Spanish version of a cup, a mixed drink based on red or white wine with added fruit and mineral water, sometimes with a spirit as well. Served chilled. Named after sangre , Spanish for "blood"

Sashimi

A Japanese dish of raw fish, shellfish and molluscs. The fish is trimmed, boned and cut with a long thin knife. Precise cutting techniques are followed

Satay

Name of a small kebab of shin, poultry or meat on short bamboo skewers. The ingredients are marinated before being skewered and cooked over charcoal and served with a dipping sauce

Sauerkraut

White cabbage that has been finely sliced, dry-salted and fermented. It requires cooking before eating

Sauté

To cook meat, fish or vegetables in fat until brown, using a frying pan. Small pieces are cooked uncovered but thicker pieces sometimes need covering after browning

Sauvignon blanc

White grape variety widely grown with small bunches of golden yellow grapes and flavours of gooseberries, green bell peppers, grass and tropical fruits

Scallops

A bivalve mollusc generally eaten cooked, but require very little cooking or they will toughen. Scallops are found in a shell and must be removed

Scampi

Italian name widely used for shellfish usually applied to the tails only

Sea urchin

A spiny, marine invertebrate with a shell. In the shell is the five yellow or orange genital glands which is the edible portion also called the coral. It can be eaten raw or warm

Shallot

A small bulb vegetable related to the onion family

Shiraz

Also Syrah a red grape variety producing blush-black grapes with a soft juicy flesh making powerful, heady tannic, rich fruity wines which can improve with age

Shiro Dashi

Shiro dashi is a concentrated broth made from seaweed, bonito fish and mushrooms

Shishito peppers

Th Japanese cousin to Spain's famed Padrón peppers. Delicately sweet and usually mild, they are an easy snack to throw on the grill. Simply toss with olive oil, cook on a hot grill, and sprinkle with a Japanese spice mix and coarse salt

Shrimp

Shellfish that live in fresh and salt water and range from tiny to giant varieties. They require brief cooking or will be overcooked used in salads, curries and seafood dishes

Snail

A terrestrial gastropod mollusc known by a spiral shell. Some species are highly prized especially in France where they are called escargot

Sommelier

The specialist wine waiter a job that requires extensive knowledge of the subject and the ability to choose the appropriate wine for a dish

Sorbet

A type of water ice that is softer and more granular than ice cream and it does not contain any fat or egg yolk

Sorrel

A culinary plant with edible green leaves with a slightly bitter taste

Soy sauce

A basic condiment from China, South-East Asia and Japan made from a fermented mixture of soya bean, wheat, water and salt. There are light and dark varieties

Spaetzle

A dish consisting of lumps or threads made from a batter of flour, milk, eggs, and salt, usually poured through a coarse colander into boiling water, and then either drained and mixed in butter, lightly pan-fried, or added to sauces and stews

Spaghetti

Long solid threads of pasta and one of the most popular of Italian pasta's. Cooked al dente normally served with tomato sauce and parmesan cheese

Sriracha sauce

Sriracha sauce is a potent chili sauce you can use to give your meals a bit of zing and heat

Sweetbreads

The culinary term for the thymus gland and the pancreas in calves, lambs and pigs. They need to be blanched, refreshed and cooked before use with a light taste, a suspicion of iodine and not the strong flavour of offal

Swiss chart

A variety of beet whose leaves and stalks are eaten as a vegetable with a slightly less pronounced flavour than spinach and prepared the same way. Also known as spinach beet

Tapenade

A condiment from Provence made with capers, desalted anchovies and stoned black olives pounded in a mortar, seasoned with olive oil, lemon juice, aromatics and a little brandy

Tartare

A raw meat dish made with minced beef, raw egg yolk and seasoning. Can also add anchovies, horseradish, paprika and onions

Tasting menu

A type of meal offered in certain restaurants, consisting of sample portions of many different dishes served in several courses for a set price

Tataki

In Japanese cookery it is a dish consisting of meat or fish steak, served either raw or lightly seared

Tempura

A Japanese dish of fish, shellfish, or vegetables, fried in batter

Teriyaki

Japanese dish of grilled food glazed with a sauce of soy sauce, mirin or sake and sugar to give an excellent flavour and rich colour

Teriyaki sauce

A mixture of soy sauce, sake, ginger, and other flavourings, used in Japanese cookery as a marinade or glaze for fish or meat dishes

Tofu

A soft, bland, white cheese like food, high in protein content, made from curdled soybean milk: used originally in Oriental cookery but now in a wide variety of soups and other dishes

Tomatillo

A small round yellow, purplish, and especially pale green edible sticky fruit of a Mexican ground-cherry. Tomatillos can by very inconsistent in flavour, with some being sour and others tasting mild and sweet

Tortellini

Italian pasta made with small pieces of thinly rolled dough, filled with a stuffing, folded and shaped into rings

Tortilla

A thin pancake made of cornmeal. In Spanish cooking a tortilla is a flat omelette filled with salt cod or potatoes. The word has the same origin as torta, a tart

Truffle

A strong-smelling underground fungus that resembles an irregular, rough-skinned potato, growing chiefly in broadleaved woodland on calcareous soils. It is considered a culinary delicacy and found, especially in France, with the aid of trained dogs or pigs

Tuna

A fish with good source of Omega-3 oils with five species now fished: albacore, yellowfin, bluefin, blackfin and skipjack which represents the third grade of canned tuna

Umami

A category of taste in food (besides sweet, sour, salt, and bitter), corresponding to the flavour of glutamates, especially monosodium glutamate. Also known as the fifth sense

Unagi

The Japanese word for freshwater eel, especially the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica. Unagi is a common ingredient in Japanese cooking. It is not to be confused with saltwater eel, which is known as anago in Japanese.

Vacherin

A cold dessert, made of a ring of meringue or almond paste filled with ice cream or whipped cream. The names comes from the shape and colour which resembles the cheese of the name

Veal

The meat of a calf up to one year with white, tender and delicate meat highly prized in cooking

Venison

The meat of any kind of deer. In French the term is also used for any large game animal such as hare and wild rabbit

Verjuice

The acid juice extracted from large unripen grapes or crab-apples used as a sauce ingredient, a condiment and in deglazing

Vichyssoise

A leek and potato soup thickened with fresh cream and served cold, garnished with chopped chives

Vin Gris

A very pale rosé wine made only in small quantities from black grapesA very pale rosé wine made only in small quantities from black grapes

Vinaigrette

A cold sauce or dressing made from a mixture of vinegar, oil, pepper and salt to which flavourings may be added like shallots, onions, herbs, capers, garlic, gherkins and anchovies

Vintage

The harvesting of grapes when they are at an optimum balance - when the grape sugar and acidity are in balance. A vintage wine is made from the produce of a single harvest

Volnay

An AOC red Burgundy wine from the Côte de Beaune famous for its elegance, quality and charming bouquetAn AOC red Burgundy wine from the Côte de Beaune famous for its elegance, quality and charming bouquet

Wagyu beef

Wagyu ("Japanese cow") is any of several breeds of cattle, the most desired of which is genetically predisposed to intense marbling and to producing a high percentage of oleaginous unsaturated fat. The meat from such wagyu cattle is known for its quality, and commands a high price

Waldorf

A mixed salad consisting of diced apple and celery and walnuts, dressed with a thin mayonnaise

Wasabi

A Japanese plant growing wild on river banks related to watercress similar to horseradish used mostly in sushi or mixed with say sauce and served with sashimi

Wheat

A cereal used to produce flour and semolina that can also be eaten cooked or crushed

Whitebait

The young of herrings which are common along coasts and in river estuaries usually fried and eaten whole

Wine

A drink made from the juice of the grape, the sugar in the fruit being converted into alcohol by the action of yeasts in the process of fermentation

Wine cellar

A cellar is the best place to store wines, being dark, airy and quite with a constant temperature and protected from unpleasant smells

Yuzu

A citrus fruit about the size of a golf ball, a hybrid of a primitive citrus called Ichang papeda and a mandarin, which grows on tall trees in Japan and has a strong sour flavour

Zest

The coloured and perfumed outer rind of an orange, lemon or other citrus fruit

Zucchini

A variety of summer squash that is shaped like a cucumber and that has a smooth, dark-green skin - also known as courgettes